LAKE-EFFECT SNOW

6/3/98


Click here to start


Table of Contents

LAKE-EFFECT SNOW

Overview of the Lake-Effect Process

Lake-Effect-type Phenomena in Other Regions

Lake-Effect vs. Lake-Enhanced

LAKE-EFFECT

Notable Snowfall Statistics

Conceptual Model of Lake-Effect

Formation Regions

Ingredients Determining Lake-Effect Characteristics

Instability

from Reinking et al. (1993)

Fetch

Favorable Fetches for Lake-Effect Snow

Wind Shear

Upstream Moisture

Upstream Lakes

Simulation of the Effects of Upwind Lakes--NW Flow

Simulation of the Effects of Upwind Lakes--West Flow Case

Synoptic-Scale Forcing

Favorable Synoptic Setting

Orography/Topography

Snow/Ice Cover on the Great Lakes

Types of Lake-Effect Snowbands

Single Band Development

Intense single snowbands exhibit strong confluence in the lower part of the mixed layer and diffluence near the top of the mixed layer.

Single Bands (cont.)

Single Bands (cont.)

Multiple Snowbands (1-20 km wide)

Multiple-Lake Bands

Satellite Applications

Water Vapor Imagery

VIS and IR Imagery

3.9 micron imagery

Reflected Energy Product

IR Cloud Top Temperatures

Distinguishing Snow Cover

Distinguishing Ice Clouds

Distinguishing Open Water

Distinguishing Liquid Water Clouds

Storm-scale Structure (Integrated data sources)

Storm-scale Structure (cont.)

IR satellite cloud top temperatures may be correlated with radar reflectivities and surface obs to infer snowfall intensity. The IR data is especially helpful over regions lacking adequate radar coverage.

FORECASTING LAKE-EFFECT

Lake-Effect Decision Tree from Niziol (1987)

Use of Numerical Models

Higher Resolution Mesoscale Models

10-km Penn State/NCAR (MM5) Model Forecast Comparison with Radar 18-hr fcst VT 18 UTC BGM radar 18 UTC

Integrated Sensor Approach

BUFKIT AUTOMATED GUIDANCE PACKAGE

Concluding Remarks

References

Author: Authorized Gateway Customer

Download presentation source